Circular RNA architecture and differentiation during leaf bud to young leaf development in tea (Camellia sinensis)
Wei Tong, Jie Yu, Yan Hou, Fangdong Li, Qiying Zhou, Chaoling Wei*, Jeffrey L. Bennetzen*
Main conclusion Circular RNA (circRNA) discovery, expression patterns and experimental validation in developing tea leaves indicates its correlation with circRNA-parental genes and potential roles in ceRNA interaction network. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently emerged as a novel class of abundant endogenous stable RNAs produced by circularization with regulatory potential. However, identification of circRNAs in plants, especially in non-model plants with large genomes, is challenging. In this study, we undertook a systematic identification of circRNAs from different stage tissues of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) leaf development using rRNA-depleted circular RNA-seq. By combining two state-of-the-art detecting tools, we characterized 3174 circRNAs, of which 342 were shared by each approach, and thus considered highconfidence circRNAs. A few predicted circRNAs were randomly chosen, and 20 out of 24 were experimental confirmed by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Similar in other plants, tissue-specific expression was also observed for many C. sinensis circRNAs. In addition, we found that circRNA abundances were positively correlated with the mRNA transcript abundances of their parental genes. qRT-PCR validated the differential expression patterns of circRNAs between leaf bud and young leaf, which also indicated the low expression abundance of circRNAs compared to the standard mRNAs from the parental genes. We predicted the circRNA-microRNA interaction networks, and 54 of the differentially expressed circRNAs were found to have potential tea plant miRNA binding sites. The gene sets encoding circRNAs were significantly enriched in chloroplasts related GO terms and photosynthesis/metabolites biosynthesis related KEGG pathways, suggesting the candidate roles of circRNAs in photosynthetic machinery and metabolites biosynthesis during leaf development.